ICHRN Knowledge Library

Pillars & Programmes    Socio-Economic Welfare    International Centre for Human Resources in Nursing (ICHRN)

The results of your search will be displayed below. Click on 'details' for further information including a link to the document.

Search: Clear
--------------Title-------------
------------Author------------
----------Categories----------
-----------Keywords----------

--------------Title-------------

Journal

-----Publisher-----
Year
------------Author------------ ----------------------------------Description---------------------------------- Details
Shokuba Support Book Japanese Nursing Association 2008 (Japanese language)A manual for creating sound working environment for nurse managers and nurse administrators. Details
The work-life experiences fo black nurses in the UK: a report for the Royal College of Nursing Royal College of Nursing 2008 Sukhwant Dhaliwal & Sonia McKay "This report is an analusis of qualitative data collected between October and November 2007. This short piece of research was commissioned by the RCN in order to collate detailed narratives ofthe worl-life experiences of black nurses from established minority ethnic communities within the UK (rather than more recently arrived Internationally Recruited Migrant Nurses)." (excerpt). Details
CNA's Preferred Future - Health for All: A Discussion Paper Canadian Nurses Association 2008 "The full version of CNA's Preferred Future: Health for All describes CNA's preferred future as seen in 2020. Key elements for health care and for nursing are outlined - both those from today's system that need to be maintained and protected and those that need to be changed or created anew." (from on-line summary) Details
Human Resources for Health (HRH) Strategic Planning: Technical brief 9 The Capacity Project 2008 Tim Martineau and Margaret Caffrey, "Each country faces different HR challenges, and these will change from year to year. All strategic plans are likely to be different and evolving, and there is no single blueprint for their development. This technical brief provides some guidance on HRH strategic planning, illustrated with examples." (excerpt) Details
HIV Care for Health Workers: Perceptions and Needs (Technical brief 13) The Capacity Project 2008 Shannon Galvin and Daniel H. de Vries Details
Green Paper on EU Workforce for Health Commission of the European Communities 2008 The Commission state that "the aim of the Green Paper is to increase the visibility of these issues, to generate a clearer picture of the extent to which local and/or national health managers face the same challenges and to engage stakeholders in the debate so as to help those responsible across Europe to address these problems effectively. The public consultation process sets out to obtain stakeholders' views on a wide range of issues connected with the healthcare workforce and preparing for the care of an ageing population. The results of the consultation will feed in to our consideration of what the EU can do to support Member States in tackling these challenges." Note - Submissions close 31 March 2009. Details
A National Impact: Local Ownership of Health Workforce Initiatives in Uganda The Capacity Project 2008 This document is part of the Capacity Project Knowledge sharing Voices series. Details
China's human resources for health: quantity, quality, and distribution 0 Anand, S., Victoria YFan, V.Y., SM b d, Junhua Zhang PhD c, Lingling Zhang SM b d, Prof Yang Ke MD e, Prof Zhe Dong PhD e and Lincoln C Chen MD Details
Supportive Supervision to Sustain Health Worker Capacity in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and North Sumatera PATH 2008 [Excerpt from publisher]Supportive supervision is a proven approach that helps transfer knowledge to practice and that ensures that learning continues beyond the traditional training setting. Through routine visits, supervisors can provide follow-up training to improve performance and solve other systemic problems that contribute to poor immunization coverage. On-the-job training also prepares new staff who may or may not have had updated training. The ultimate goal is a sustainable system that works with government supervisors to give health workers the consistent guidance and mentoring they need to implement and maintain a safe and effective immunization program. Details
Return Migration of Nurses International Centre on Nurse Migration 2008 Haour-Knipe M and Davies A [Excerpt from authors]This paper focuses on some of the challenges and the opportunities created by migration of nurses, specifically focusing on the issue of return. Increases in migration of nurses over recent decades has been generating grave concern, especially in developing countries, where, when the migration is permanent, the loss of skilled health professionals can seriously weaken health systems. Nurse migration also creates opportunities, however, including those created by return. Nurses who return home after a period of working abroad are often equipped with new skills and work experience. They may be able to serve as an enriched resource for health services, helping strengthen health systems and thus health in general in their countries of origin. Details
Out of Order Out of Time:The State of the Nations' Health Workforce Association of Academic Health Centers 2008 [Excerpt from publisher] Out of Order, Out of Time: The State of the Nation's Health Workforce is a report undertaken by the Association of Academic Health Centers (AAHC) to focus attention on the critical need for a new, collaborative, coordinated, national health workforce planning initiative. The report is based on the following premises: -The dysfunction in public and private health workforce policy and infrastructure is an outgrowth of decentralized decision-making in health workforce education, planning, development and policymaking (out of order); -The costs and consequences of our collective failure to act effectively are accelerating due to looming socioeconomic forces that leave no time for further delay (out of time); -Cross-cutting challenges that transcend geographical and professional boundaries require an integrated and comprehensive national policy to implement effective solutions; -The issues and problems outlined in the report have not been effectively addressed to date because of the inability of policymakers at all levels to break free from the historic incremental, piecemeal approaches; and -Despite many challenges, the prospects for positive change are high. The report presents findings, conclusions and recommendations. Details
Health Workforce and International Migration: Can New Zealand Compete? Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2008 Zurn P and Dumont J [Excerpt from authors]This paper examines health workforce and migration policies in New Zealand, with a special focus on the international recruitment of doctors and nurses. Details
Assessing the Impact of a New Health Sector Pay System Upon NHS Staff in the United Kingdom Human Resources for Health, 2008 Buchan J and Evans D [Excerpt from authors]Background Pay and pay systems are a critical element in any health sector human resource strategy. Changing a pay system can be one strategy to achieve or sustain organizational change. This paper reports on the design and implementation of a completely new pay system in the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. 'Agenda for Change' constitutes the largest-ever attempt to introduce a new pay system in the UK public services, covering more than one million staff. Its objectives were to improve the delivery of patient care as well as enhance staff recruitment, retention and motivation, and to facilitate new ways of working. Details
Country Case Study: Malawi's Emergency Human Resources Programme Global Health Workforce Alliance 2008 GHWA Task Force on Scaling Up Education and Training for Health Workers [Excerpt from publisher] Introduction. Malawi's health human resources initiatives since the late 1990s provide a good example of a comprehensive national scale-up plan for the health workforce. Its Emergency Human Resources Plan (EHRP), introduced in 2004, has shown modest but promising results. Health worker attrition remains high and tutor supply low, but training capacity has been substantially expanded and Malawi is expected to begin meeting training output targets in 2008. Details
Country Case Study:Ghana: Implementing a National Human Resources for Health Plan Global Health Workforce Alliance 2008 GHWA Task Force on Scaling Up Education and Training for Health Workers [Excerpt from publisher]Summary: Ghana has recognised the need to address its serious health workforce shortage, and consequent issues with health service delivery. A new human resources strategic plan has been developed to guide scale-up from 2007 to 2011. This fits into the broader health sector plan, which prioritises general health system development, promotion of healthy lifestyles and environment, improving healthy reproduction and nutrition services and governance and financing . It is also consistent with the President's vision to bring the country to middleincome status by 2015 - a goal that requires a healthy population. A review of the 2004 programme of work in the health sector found that failure to achieve improved health outcomes was often tied to issues of poor morale and distribution of the health workforce. After an in-country health workforce forum in 2005, the Ministry of Health carried out a needs assessment, which underpins the current plan. Details
Human Resources for Health (HRH) Strategic Planning The Capacity Project 2008 Martineau T and Caffrey M [Excerpt from publisher]Provides guidance on HRH strategic planning, illustrated with examples. Details
Data Quality Considerations in Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS) Strengthening The Capacity Project 2008 Wakibi S [Excerpt from author] This brief will discuss concepts of data quality and provide examples of the importance of data management specific to the field of HRH, illustrated by the Capacity Project's experience with HRIS strengthening in developing countries. Details
Pandemic Influenza Human Resources Guidance for the NHS NHS Employers 2008 [Excerpt from publisher] The pandemic flu HR guidance covers the range of issues which may emerge in the event of a pandemic: -it outlines the main features of the proposed response to the pandemic. Full details of how services will be restructured including the setting up of a 'pandemic flu line' to be coordinated by NHS Direct, arrangements in primary and community services and changes to hospital based services are dealt with in more detail in a range of other pandemic guidance which has been issued by the Department of Health. -how staff can be redeployed and how organisations can work together can sustain services to deal with the pandemic impact -how the NHS should deal with the likely impact of the pandemic on staffing levels for example by seeking to build up a reserve pool of potential staff to draw on to fill in gaps created by staff absence -how to manage staff absence and in particular dealing with staff that have caring responsibilities especially school age children -ensuring staff are used most effectively and reassuring staff around issues such as discipline -how to comply with the working time regulations providing support to staff during and the pandemic the recovery phase. Details
Pandemic Influenza Human Resources Guidance for the NHS NHS Employers 2008 [Excerpt from publisher] The pandemic flu HR guidance covers the range of issues which may emerge in the event of a pandemic: -it outlines the main features of the proposed response to the pandemic. Full details of how services will be restructured including the setting up of a 'pandemic flu line' to be coordinated by NHS Direct, arrangements in primary and community services and changes to hospital based services are dealt with in more detail in a range of other pandemic guidance which has been issued by the Department of Health. -how staff can be redeployed and how organisations can work together can sustain services to deal with the pandemic impact -how the NHS should deal with the likely impact of the pandemic on staffing levels for example by seeking to build up a reserve pool of potential staff to draw on to fill in gaps created by staff absence -how to manage staff absence and in particular dealing with staff that have caring responsibilities especially school age children -ensuring staff are used most effectively and reassuring staff around issues such as discipline -how to comply with the working time regulations providing support to staff during and the pandemic the recovery phase. Details
The Double Burden of Human Resource and HIV Crises: A Case Study of Malawi Human Resources for Health 2008 McCoy D, McPake B and Mwapasa V [Excerpt from authors]Two crises dominate the health sectors of sub-Saharan African countries: those of human resources and of HIV. Nevertheless, there is considerable variation in the extent to which these two phenomena affect sub-Saharan countries, with a few facing extreme levels of both: Lesotho, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Mozambique, the Central African Republic and Malawi. This paper reviews the continent-wide situation with respect to this double burden before considering the case of Malawi in more detail. In Malawi, there has been significant concurrent investment in both an Emergency Human Resource Programme and an antiretroviral therapy programme which was treating 60,000 people by the end of 2006. Both areas of synergy and conflict have arisen, as the two programmes have been implemented. These highlight important issues for programme planners and managers to address and emphasize that planning for the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy while simultaneously strengthening health systems and the human resource situation requires prioritization among compelling cases for support, and time (not just resources). Details
The Influence of Teams, Supervisors and Organizations on Healthcare Practitioners' Abilities to Practise Ethically Nursing Leadership, Longwoods Publishing 2008 Sarah Wall and Wendy Austin "A phenomenological study was conducted in which the impact of the team and the larger organization on practitioners' experiences of dealing with moral challenges was uncovered. Various mental healthcare professionals shared their experiences of ethically challenging situations in their practices and described the ways in which their teammates and supervisors affected how they faced these troubling situations. These findings allow us to see that there is considerable room for healthcare managers, many of whom are nurses, to facilitate supportive, ethical environments for healthcare professionals. An understanding of the essential experience of practising ethically allows for an appreciation of the significance of the team's role in supporting it and enables healthcare managers to target support for ethical healthcare work." (from abstract) Details
What makes nurses happy? nursezone.com 2008 Debra Wood Brief article doumenting the experiences of some US hospitals in strategies to increase satisfaction and retention of nurses. Details
International mobility of health professionals and health workforce planning in Canada: Myths and realities OECD 2008 Jean-Christophe Dumont, Pascal Zurn, Jody Church and Christine Le Thi "This report examines the role played by immigrant health workers in the Canadian health workforce but also the interactions between migration policies and education and health workforce management policies."(from summary) Details
Globalisation spurs migration of healthcare workers from poor nations British Medical Journal 2008 John Zarocostas "Globalisation has made it easier for rich nations to "pull in" skilled migrants such as healthcare workers from poor nations, says a report from the International Organization for Migration, which promotes humane and orderly migration. Such migrants include a large number from sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the greatest shortage of healthcare personnel, and the trend is unlikely to abate, the report says." (from website) Details
Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Health Workforce in Developing Countries World Health Organization 2006 Tawfik l and Kinoti SN [Excerpt from authors] This paper addresses one of the key global health challenges today, especially in the poorest countries: the influence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on the health workforce. First, we provide an overview of the impact of HIV/AIDS on health systems and how this influences demand and supply of the health workforce, with a focus on developing countries. Second, we review the impact of HIVAIDS on morbidity and mortality among staff, with specific emphasis on countries in Africa. Next, we review the impact of HIV/AIDS on workforce motivation, performance and migration. Last, we discuss policy options for future staff scenarios and potential obstacles, highlighting policies that could improve retention, replacement and replenishment of health workers. Details
Addressing the Human Resource Crisis in Malawi's Health Sector: Employment Preferences of Public Sector Registered Nurses Overseas Development Institute 2007 Mangham L [Excerpt from author]This paper examines the employment preferences of public sector registered nurses working in Malawi and identifies the range and relative importance of the factors that affect their motivation. The research was designed in the light of the Malawi government's programme to address the shortage of health workers, which is based on salary top-ups as a means of increasing employee motivation and reducing high rates of attrition. This policy has been adopted despite relatively little quantitative exploration into the employment preferences of health workers in developing countries. This study aims to provide a clearer picture of the preferences of registered nurses about different aspects of their employment, and the factors that might persuade them to continue in the profession within their home country. Details
New Data on African Health Professionals Abroad Human Resources for Health 2008 Clemens M and Pettersson G [Excerpt from authors]Background:The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods: We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results: Approximately 65 000 African-born physicians and 70 000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusions:These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries. Details
Human Resource Development and Antiretroviral Treatment in Free State province, South Africa Human Resources for Health 2008 van Rensburg D, Steyn F, Schneider H and Loffstadt L [Excerpt from authors]Background In common with other developing countries, South Africa's public health system is characterised by human resource shortfalls. These are likely to be exacerbated by the escalating demand for HIV care and a large-scale antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme. Focusing on professional nurses, the main front-line providers of primary health care in South Africa, we studied patterns of planning, recruitment, training and task allocation associated with an expanding ART programme in the districts of one province, the Free State. Details
Outcomes of Interventions to Improve Hospital Nursing Work Environments Journal of Nursing Administration. 2008 McGillis Hall L, Doran D and Pink L [Excerpt from publisher]Objective: The impact of interventions designed to improve the nursing work environment on patient and nurse outcomes was examined. Background: Nursing work environments have been characterized as contributing to patient outcomes as a result of organizational management practices, workforce deployment, work design, and organizational culture. Methods: This quasi-experimental study involved 16 unit managers, 1,137 patients, and 296 observations from registered nurses over time. Results: After participation in the intervention, study nurses reported higher perceptions of their work and work environment. Demographic nurse, unit, and hospital characteristics also had an impact on the work environment and outcomes. Conclusions: Findings in this study highlight the importance of understanding factors in the work environment that influence patient and nurse outcomes. Details
Supply of Internationally Educated Nurses in Ontario: Recent Developments and Future Scenarios Nursing Health Services Resaearch Unit 2008 Blythe J and Baumann A [Excerpt form authors]Ontario does not educate sufficient nurses to avoid a serious shortage in the future. Therefore, it is essential that planners understand the importance of internationally educated nurses (IENs) as a supply source. This report builds on Report Number 3 in the Health Human Resource series (Baumann, Blythe, Rheaume, & McIntosh, 2006) and answers three questions: What are the characteristics of the Ontario IEN workforce? What factors are likely to influence IEN supply in the future? What are the implications of IEN migration for policy making and workforce planning? Details
Fact Sheet: A Literature Review of Orientation Programs for New Nursing Graduates Nursing Health Services Research Unit McMaster University & University of Toronto 0 Baxter P [Excerpt from publisher] This fact sheet is based on: A Literature Review of Orientation Programs for New Nursing Graduates, a project commissioned by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care. The full report is available on the Nursing Health Services Research Unit web site www.nhsru.com Details
Driven by Dogma: Outsourcing in the health service Unison 2008 Office of Public Management (OPM) Ltd for Unison (excerpt from document foreword)"This report is a timely contribution to the debate on outsourcing and the use of the private sector in delivering public services. The current financial crisis has demonstrated the failure of light-touch regulation and the need for much greater control and transparency in the UK's financial sector.The NHS is increasingly facing similar issues as parts of the system have been outsourced and more private companies brought in to provide services.OPM's report usefully highlights a number of key concerns for UNISON around value for money, impact on staff terms and conditions, fragmentation of services, and a failure of accountability." Details
Older..but wiser?:Policy responses to an ageing nursing workforce: A report for the Royal College of Nurses, Scotland Royal College of Nursing, Scotland 2008 James Buchan, Fiona O'May and Dolly McCann (excerpt from Introduction)"This report for the Royal College of Nursing in Scotland is based on a review of the research literature on the policy implications of, and policy responses to, the ageing nursing workforce. It takes a practical focus - aiming to report on what is known about the policy challenges of an ageing nursing workforce, and also "what works" in terms of reported policy initiatives" Details
Building the Bridge from Human Resources Data to Effective Decisions: Ten Pillars of Successful Data-Driven Decision-Making The Capacity Project 2008 Adano, U. [exerpt] 'The purpose of this technical brief is to present ten fundamental and practical pillars to aid HR managers, practitioners and policy analysts in building a bridge from HR data and reports to effective HR policy and management decisions.' Details
An Overview of Human Resources for Health (HRH) Projection Models: Technical Brief 12 The Capacity Project 2008 McQuide, P., Stevens, J., Settle, D., Intrahealth International [excerpt] 'The aim of this technical brief is to provide a rapid review of different health workforce projection approaches. A list of references serves as a guide for those who would like more information on this subject...This brief will discuss six different HRH projection approaches, based on a review ofthe current literature.' Details
Overview of Evidence Relating to Shifting the Balance of Care: A Contribution to the Knowledge Base Scottish Government Social Research 2008 Johnstone, L., Lardner, C., and Jepson, R. [excerpt by authors]"This report presents the findings of a short review of evidence. The aim was to provide an overview of evidence to contribute to the debate on, and inform the development of, the policy on shifting the balance of care a key theme within health and community care policy which is intended to bring about improvements in service delivery and health outcomes. Shifting the balance of care is a term used to describe change at a number of levels, for example, shifting the location of care towards more community-based facilities, shifting the focus of care towards long term conditions and changing the roles and responsibilities of patients and professionals." Details
Using Human Resource for Health Data:Health Policy and Program Planning Examples from Four African Countries United States Agency for International Development; Africa's Health in 2010 2008 Musau S [Excerpt from author]Imbalances in quantity and quality of human resources for health (HRH) are increasingly recognized as perhaps the most critical impediment to achieving health outcome objectives in most African countries. However, reliable data on the HRH situation is not readily available. Some countries have hesitated to act in the absence of such data; other countries have not acted even when data are available while others have moved ahead in spite of the lack of reliable information. This paper addresses the issue of data use for HRH policy-making. It will provide valuable information to the body of literature available to policy-makers and their development partners as they grapple with the development and implementation of workable HRH policies. Details
Spinning Plates: Establishing a Work-life Balance - A Guide for RCN Representatives Royal College of Nursing , UK 2008 Power N and Lewis V [Excerpt from authors]This publication provides guidance to RCN representatives on the issues affecting work-life balance today. Details
What Matters to Staff in the NHS Department of Health 2008 Ipsos MORI report for the DH [Excerpt from publisher] A research study identifying the emotional and behaviour drivers that contribute to staff engagement and motivation to provide high quality patient care. Details
Improving Retention and Performance in Civil Society in Uganda Human Resources for Health 2008 O'Neil, M and Paydos, M [Excerpt from authors]This article describes the experience of the Family Life Education Programme (FLEP), a reproductive health program that provides community-based health services through 40 clinics in five districts of Uganda, in improving retention and performance by using the Management Sciences for Health (MSH) Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. Details
Human Resource Leadership: The Key to Improved Results in Health Human Resources for Health 2008 O'Neil, M [Excerpt from author]This opening article describes the human resource challenges that managers around the world report and analyses why solutions often fail to be implemented. Despite rising attention to the acute shortage of health care workers, solutions to the human resource (HR) crisis are difficult to achieve, especially in the poorest countries. Although we are aware of the issues and have developed HR strategies, the problem is that some old systems of leading and managing human resources for health do not work in today's context. Details
Reducing Work-Life Conflict: What Works? What Doesn't? Health Canada 2008 Higgins C, Duxbury L and Lyons S This report examines what employers, employees and their families can do to reduce work-life conflict. Details
Assessing Financing, Education, Management and Policy Context for Strategic Planning of Human Resources for Health World Health Organization 2007 Bossert T, B?rnighausen T, Bowser D, Mitchell A and Gedik G [Excerpt from publisher] This tool is designed as an initial diagnostic instrument to be used in a process of developing a national strategic plan on human resources for health. It helps to provide a rapid initial assessment and a preliminary strategic plan as part of a longer-term and sustained process of human resources planning. Details
Human Resources for Health Challenges of Public Health System Reform in Georgia Human Resources for Health 2008 Djibuti M , Gotsadze G, Mataradze G and Menabde G [Excerpt from authors]Human resources (HR) are one of the most important components determining performance of public health system. The aim of this study was to assess adequacy of HR of local public health agencies to meet the needs emerging from health care reforms in Georgia. Details
Pay Jolt? The Impact of the 2004/5 New Zealand Nurses Employment Agreement New Zealand Nurses Organisation 2008 Buchan J and North N [Excerpt from author]This report examines the impact of a national multi- employer collective agreement (MECA) for nurses, hospital midwives and healthcare assistants in New Zealand. Details
id21 Health Highlights - Health Workforce Institute of Development Studies 2008 In this issue: - Could health worker migration bring benefits to Malawi? -Removal of childbirth delivery fees. The impact on health workers in Ghana - Regulation of dual job-holding public sector doctors in Peru - Health worker responses to health sector reforms - Motivating Tanzanian primary health care workers Details
Health Workers for All and All for Health Workers:The Kampala Declaration Global Health Workforce Alliance 2008 The declaration calls for urgent action on a number of fronts. While recognising that migration of health workers is a reality and has both positive and negative impact, the Declaration calls on countries to put appropriate mechanisms in place to shape the health workforce market in favour of retention. It also calls on theWorld Health Organization to accelerate negotiations for a code of practice on the international recruitment of health care professionals. Also available in French http://www.who.int/workforcealliance/forum/2_declaration_fr_finale.pdf Details
Retooling for an Aging America: Building the Health Care Workforce Committee on the Future Health Care Workforce for Older Americans, Institute of Medicine 2008 [Excerpt from publisher] The nation faces an impending health care crisis as the number of older patients with more complex health needs increasingly outpaces the number of health care providers with the knowledge and skills to adequately care for them. As the nation's baby boomers turn 65 and older and are living longer lives, fundamental changes in the health care system need to take place, and greater financial resources need to be committed to ensure they can receive high-quality care. Right now, the nation is not prepared to meet the social and health care needs of elderly people. Details
The International Migration and Recruitment of Nurses: Human Rights and Global Justice Amercian Medical Association- JAMA 2008 Gostin LO [Excerpt from author]THE INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION OF HEALTH CARE workers-physicians, nurses, midwives, and pharmacists- leaves the world's poorest countries with severe human resource shortages, seriously jeopardizing the achievement of the UN Health Millennium Development Goals. Advocates for global health call active recruitment in low-income countries a crime. Despite the pronounced international concern, there is little research and few solutions. This Commentary focuses on the international recruitment of internationally educated nurses (IENs) from the perspective of human rights and global justice. Details
Monitoring Education and Training for Health Workers World Health Organization - Spotlight on Statistics: A Fact File on Health Workforce Statistics 2008 [Excerpt from publisher]Scaling up the production of health workers means not only increasing the output of health professions education programmes, but also ensuring that the 'pipeline' - from recruitment and selection of students to deployment of new graduates in the health labour market - is functional and eff ective, and that the education and training programmes are adapted to the changing needs of the population. Details
Gender and Health Workforce Statistics World Health Organization - Spotlight on Statistics: A Fact File on Health Workforce Statistics 2008 [Excerpt from publisher]Women make up about 42% of the estimated global paid working population. Within the health sector, in many countries women comprise over 75% of the workforce, making them indispensable as contributors to the delivery of health care services. Details
Crisis in Human Resources for Health Care and the Potential of a Retired Workforce: Case Study of the Independent Midwifery Sector in Tanzania Oxford University Press- Health Policy and Planning 2008 Rolfe B, Leshabari S, Rutta F and Murray SF [Excerpt from authors]The human resource crisis in health care is an important obstacle to attainment of the health-related targets for the Millennium Development Goals. One suggested strategy to alleviate the strain upon government services is to encourage new forms of non-government provision. Detail on implementation and consequences is often lacking, however. This article examines one new element of non-government provision in Tanzania: small-scale independent midwifery practices. A multiple case study analysis over nine districts explored their characteristics, and the drivers and inhibitors acting upon their development since permitted by legislative change. Details
How to Monitor and Address Absenteeism in District Hospitals Health Systems Trust - Kwik-Skwiz 2000 [Excerpt from author]Many health service managers are familiar with the problem of absenteeism in district hospitals. It affects the running of the hospital and can seriously compromise the quality of care which patients receive. This Kwik-Skwiz aims to help hospital managers: - Assess whether or not they have a problem with absenteeism - Have a better understanding of the problem - Have a better understanding of the causes of the problem - Have a framework for addressing the issue Details
The Impact of Organisation and Management Factors on Infection Control in Hospitals: a Scoping Review King's College London 2008 Griffiths P, Renz A and Rafferty A [Excerpt from publisher] This report gives the results of a rapid scoping review to identify evidence about organisational and management factors affecting infection control in general hospital settings. Details
Job Satisfaction Among Intensive Care Nurses from the People's Republic of China International Nursing Review 2008 Li J and Lambert VA [Excerpt from authors]Background: Prior research has suggested that job satisfaction is a major concern for both nurses and healthcare administrators. A variety of workplace stressors, coping strategies and demographic characteristics have been found to contribute both positively and negatively to job satisfaction. However, most of this research has been conducted in Western culture countries, leaving one to wonder if the findings are relevant in China, particularly in regard to intensive care nurses. Aim: Therefore, the purpose of this descriptive study was to determine, in intensive care nurses from the People's Republic of China, which combination of workplace stressors, coping strategies and demographic characteristics was the best predictor of job satisfaction. Methods: To address these purposes, four self-report questionnaires were administered to a convenience sample of 102 intensive care nurses from four teaching hospitals located in two cities in central China. Results: The best predictors of job satisfaction were workload, years of experience in nursing, uncertainty about patients' treatment, behavioural disengagement and positive reframing. Conclusions: The findings provide information about what factors need to be considered and addressed in the workplace to facilitate job satisfaction among Chinese intensive care nurses. Details
Burnout in Hospital Nurses: A Comparison of Internal, Surgery, Psychiatry and Burns Wards International Nursing Review 2008 Sahraian A, Fazelzadeh A, Mehdizadeh AR and Toobaee SH [Excerpt from authors] Introduction: Burnout is a phenomenon in which the cumulative effects of a stressful work environment gradually overwhelm the defenses of staff members, forcing them to withdraw psychologically. This study compared the levels of burnout among nurses in different nursing specialties. Materials and methods: The sample of the study consisted of all the nurses working in all public hospitals in Shiraz, Iran who were graduates of either technological educational institutions or universities and had experienced clinical nursing practice for at least 1 year. Using Maslach Burnout Inventory and General Health Questionnaire (28-item version), we identified the psychiatric morbidity and burnout among nurses. Results: Study results indicated that nurses of psychiatry wards showed significantly higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in comparison with nurses working in other wards, and burn wards nurses showed significantly higher levels of personal accomplishment. Also, nurses who were single were more emotionally exhausted. Conclusion: Different clinical working environments appear to have an impact on the development of nurses' burnout. Details
Staffing Remote Rural Areas in Middle- and Low-income Countries: a Literature Review of Attraction and Retention BMC Health Services Research 2008 Lehmann U , Dieleman M and Martineau T [Excerpt from authors]Background: Many countries in middle- and low-income countries today suffer from severe staff shortages and/or maldistribution of health personnel which has been aggravated more recently by the disintegration of health systems in low-income countries and by the global policy environment. One of the most damaging effects of severely weakened and under-resourced health systems is the difficulty they face in producing, recruiting, and retaining health professionals, particularly in remote areas. Low wages, poor working conditions, lack of supervision, lack of equipment and infrastructure as well as HIV and AIDS, all contribute to the flight of health care personnel from remote areas. In this global context of accelerating inequities health service policy makers and managers are searching for ways to improve the attraction and retention of staff in remote areas. But the development of appropriate strategies first requires an understanding of the factors which influence decisions to accept and/or stay in a remote post, particularly in the context of mid and low income countries (MLICS), and which strategies to improve attraction and retention are therefore likely to be successful. It is the aim of this review article to explore the links between attraction and retention factors and strategies, with a particular focus on the organisational diversity and location of decision-making. Details
Monitoring the Health Workforce: Measurement Issues and Selected Tools World Health Organization - Spotlight on Statistics: A Fact File on Health Workforce Statistics 2008 [Excerpt from publisher] The need for health workforce statistics is a critical issue of concern. The required analysis for policy action must be based on timely and reliable data from relevant sources. Improved analysis and use of data lead to better health workforce policy and programme decision making, strengthened health systems and, ultimately, improved health outcomes. Spotlight on Statistics is a series of fact files on health workforce statistics produced by the Department of Human Resources for Health, World Health Organization. For more information, please contact: hrhstatistics@who.int  Visit our web site: www.who.int/hrh/statistics/en/ Details
Non-physician Clinicians in 47 sub-Saharan African Countries Lancet 2007 Mullan F and , Frehywot S Free registration is required in order to access this article online from The Lancet.[Excerpt by author]Many countries have health-care providers who are not trained as physicians but who take on many of the diagnostic and clinical functions of medical doctors. We identifi ed non-physician clinicians (NPCs) in 25 of 47 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, although their roles varied widely between countries. In nine countries, numbers of NPCs equalled or exceeded numbers of physicians. In general NPCs were trained with less cost than were physicians, and for only 3-4 years after secondary school. All NPCs did basic diagnosis and medical treatment, but some were trained in specialty activities such as caesarean section, ophthalmology, and anaesthesia. Many NPCs were recruited from rural and poor areas, and worked in these same regions. Low training costs, reduced training duration, and success in rural placements suggest that NPCs could have substantial roles in the scale-up of health workforces in sub-Saharan African countries, including for the planned expansion of HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes. Details
Caring for Nurses in Public Health Emergencies Canadian Policy Research Networks 2008 Amaratunga C, Carter M, O'Sullivan T, Phillips K, Saunders R and Thille P [Excerpt from publisher]Significant gaps in support exist for nurses in the event of a public health emergency like a flu pandemic, this new study by the Women's Health Research Unit of the University of Ottawa demonstrates. Caring for Nurses in Public Health Emergencies calls for significant workplace human resources improvements to better protect nurses in emergencies. These include increased access to training, improved compensation and benefits for "casual" employees, more effective communication of risks and risk management strategies, and supports to reduce work/life conflicts for nurses, the majority of whom are women. Strengthening resources and support would also enhance public health and safety. Details
Finding Solutions to the Human Resources for Health Crisis The Lancet 2008 Several Free registration is required to access this special issue on health human resources. Details
Refugee Healthcare Professionals - Building Bridges NHS Employers 2008 [Description from publisher]The Building Bridges project aims to improve the co-ordination and integration of training and guidance services in London to assist refugee healthcare professionals back into employment. Details
Intent to Migrate Among Nursing Students in Uganda: Measures of the Brain Drain in the Next Generation of Health Professionals Human Resources for Health 2008 Nguyen L, Ropers S, Nderitu E, Zuyderduin A, Luboga S and Hagopian A [Excerpt from authors]Background There is significant concern about the worldwide migration of nursing professionals from low-income countries to rich ones, as nurses are lured to fill the large number of vacancies in upper-income countries. This study explores the views of nursing students in Uganda to assess their views on practice options and their intentions to migrate. Details
Managerial Competencies of Hospital Managers in South Africa: A Survey of Managers in the Public and Private Sectors Human Resources for Health 2008 Pillay R [Excerpt from author]Background South Africa has large public and private sectors and there is a common perception that public sector hospitals are inefficient and ineffective while the privately owned and managed hospitals provide superior care and are more sustainable. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between the two sectors. This study aims to ascertain the skills and competency levels of hospital managers in South Africa and to determine whether there are any significant differences in competency levels between managers in the different sectors. Details
What if we Decided to Take Care of Everyone Who Needed Treatment? Workforce Planning in Mozambique using simulation of demand for HIV/AIDS care Human Resources for Health 2008 Hagopian A, Micek M, Vio F, Gimbel-Sherr K and Montoyo P [Excerpt from authors]Background The growing AIDS epidemic in southern Africa is placing an increased strain on health systems, which are experiencing rising steadily patient loads. Health care systems are tackling the barriers to serving large populations in scaled-up operations. One of the most significant challenges in this effort is securing the health care workforce to deliver care in settings where the manpower is already in short supply. Details
Task Shifting: Rational Redistribution of Tasks Among Health Workforce Teams - Global Recommendations and Guidelines World Health Organization; UNAIDS; PEPFAR 2008 [Expert from publisher]The recommendations and guidelines have been developed over a period of one year through a process of country consultation, extensive evidence gathering (including specially commissioned research to address knowledge gaps), and broad consultation among a wide range of experts and stakeholders. The outcome is a set of 22 recommendations that provide overall guidance to those countries that are considering adopting or extending a task shifting approach. The recommendations and guidelines identify and define the key elements that must be in place if the approach is to prove safe, efficient, effective, equitable and sustainable. They cover the need for consultation, situation analysis and national endorsement, and for an enabling regulatory framework. They specify the quality assurance mechanisms, including standardized training, supportive supervision, and certification and assessment, that will be important to ensure quality of care. They cover the elements that will need to be considered for the purpose of ensuring adequate resources for implementation and offer advice on the organization of clinical care services under a task shifting approach. Details
UK Wide Workforce Planning Competence Framework NHS National Workforce Projects 2005 'The items within the UK Wide Workforce Planning Competence Framework describe good practice in the workplace in terms of what individuals need to be able to do, as well as what they need to know and understand.'(from website) Details
Financial Incentives, Healthcare Providers and Quality Improvements: A Review of the Evidence The Health Foundation 2007 Christianson J, Leatherman S and Sutherland K [Excerpt ffrom authors]This study reviews the healthcare literature that examines the effect of financial incentives on the behaviour of healthcare organisations and individuals with respect to the quality of care they deliver to consumers. Its purpose is to provide guidance to policy-makers in government and decision-makers in the private sector in their efforts to improve quality of care through payment reforms. In this review and synthesis we assess the quality of the evidence relating to the relationship between financial incentives for providers and quality improvement. Specifically, we address: 1. How effective are efforts to reward providers for improving the quality of care they provide or achieving benchmark levels of quality? 2. Whether, and to what degree, financial incentives intended to restrain costs and utilisation have had secondary effects on quality of care? Details
Healthy Work Environments - Workplace Health, Safety and Well-being of the Nurse Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario 2008 [Excerpt from publisher]This guideline speaks to the impacts of health, wellness and safety focused environments for nurses on quality outcomes for patients/clients, nurses, organizations and systems Details
Major Surgery Delegation to Mid-level Health Practitioners in Mozambique: Health Professionals' Perceptions Human Resources for Health 2007 Cumbi a, Pereira C, Malalane R, Vaz F ,McCord C, Bacci A and Bergstrom S [Excerpt from authors]This study examines the opinions of health professionals about the capacity and performance of the 'tecnico de cirurgia', a surgically trained assistant medical officer in the Mozambican health system. Particular attention is paid to the views of medical doctors and maternal and child health nurses. Details
Health Workforce Development: An Overview Ministry of Health New Zealand 2006 [Excerpt from publisher]This report provides an overview of health workforce development in New Zealand since 2000. It is intended to be a resource to assist those with an interest in health workforce development to understand current issues and approaches to dealing with health workforce development. It also indicates the directions needed to respond to the new demands for health and disability support workers in the future. Details
Moral Distress: Recognizing it to Retain Nurses Jannetti Publications, Inc.; Nursing Economics 2007 Pendry PS This publication is available through Medscape Nurses www.medscape.com/nurses [Excerpt from publisher]Today's acute care environment presents nurses with difficult situations that may cause them to experience moral distress. Medical advances provide today's practitioners with treatment decisions that did not exist previously. Chronic staffing shortages and inadequate resources lead to feelings of inadequacy in providing appropriate care to patients. Managed care directives, health care regulations, and institutional expectations further complicate care provision. Faced with these challenges, 15% of the nurses in one study reported resigning a position due to experiencing moral distress (Corley, Elswick, Gorman, & Clor, 2001). With the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (2005) predicting a continuing intensification of the current nursing shortage, understanding and addressing an issue with the potential to affect nursing retention becomes crucial. Details
Crisis in Human Resources for Health in the African Region World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa - African Health Monitor 2007 This issue of the African Health Monitor explores the following topics: the migration of skilled health workers, investing in human resources for health, strengthening human resources for health in Africa, and the economic cost of health professionals brain drain in the African region. Details
Zanzibar Health Care Worker Productivity Study: Preliminary Study Findings The Capacity Project 2007 Ruwoldt P and Hassett P [Excerpt from authors] This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of these two efforts. Specifically, we present the baseline study findings, identify areas where current productivity falls short of desired levels, consider the root causes of identified productivity gaps and offer practical recommendations for feasible management interventions to improve productivity. We conclude with a short-term action plan for moving forward with implementation activities. Details
Flexible Working and Work-life Balance Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service 2007 [Excerpt from publisher]The booklet is one of a series designed to give impartial advice on employment matters to employers, employees and their representatives. Details
Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: A Learning and Development Toolkit for the Whole of the Mental Health Workforce Across Both Health and Social Care Department of Health UK 2007 [Excerpt from publisher] The purpose of this toolkit is to set out the current learning and development issues for mental health; the priorities local health and social care organisations may wish to consider in developing their own learning and development strategies; and the future learning and development issues coming round the corner. Details
Stories for Safety: Sharing the Evidence about Nursing and Patient Safety Canadian Health Services Research Foundation 0 [Excerpt from publisher] Stories for Safety reveal the experiences of some health system managers and policy makers practicing evidence-informed decision-making in nursing and patient safety. These one-page, plain-language summaries provide personal anecdotes on how to optimize numbers, skills, training, and experience in assigning and managing nursing staff. These stories highlight practical examples in line with the recommendations from the Staffing for Safety synthesis on nurse staffing and patient safety. Also Available in French at: http://www.chsrf.ca/research_themes/nlop_stories_safety_e.php Details
The Nursing Faculty Shortage : A Crisis for Health Care Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2006 Yordy KD [Excerpt from Executive Summary] The shortage of nursing faculty in the United States is a critical problem that directly affects the nation's nurse shortage, which is projected to worsen in future years. Shortterm interventions to address the nursing shortage are inadequate given the increasing needs of a growing and aging population. A substantial increase in newly educated nurses will be needed to meet future demand; therefore, timely and sustainable interventions to reduce the nursing faculty shortage are required. This paper highlights solutions to the faculty shortage by:describing the current faculty shortage in relation to demand, supply, educational preparation and productivity;examining the factors that contribute to the faculty shortage;reviewing the array of interventions already undertaken; andoutlining recommendations for further action.The paper is based on a review of published literature and data, including surveys by government and professional organizations, studies by state task forces addressing the nursing shortage, foundation reports, and reviews by such groups as the National Conference of State Legislatures of activities at the state level, as well as author interviews with leaders in nursing education. Details
Good Practice in Managing the Use of Temporary Nursing Staff National Audit Office; Department of Health 2006 [Excerpt from Preface] This good practice guide has been prepared by the National Audit Office in collaboration with the Audit Commission and the Department of Health. It draws on the research carried out as part of the National Audit Office's study on the use of in NHS acute and foundation trusts. It is intended as a practical guide for trust boards and managers to help them to use temporary nursing staff effectively. The guide comprises a narrative of the salient points in the use and management of temporary nursing staff and includes a number of good practice checklists. Details
Reincentivizing - A New Theory of Work and Work Absence BMC Health Services Research 2007 Thulesius HO and Grahn BE [Excerpt from authors]Background: Work capacity correlates weakly to disease concepts, which in turn are insufficient to explain sick leave behavior. With data mainly from Sweden, a welfare state with high sickness absence rates, our aim was to develop an explanatory theory of how to understand and deal with work absence and sick leave. In this paper we present a theory of work incentives and how to deal with work absence. Details
Supporting the Retention of Human Resources for Health: SADC Policy Context Equinet 2005 Gilson L and Erasmus E [Excerpt from authors]This report has been prepared for the Health Systems Trust (HST), South Africa and the Regional Network for Equity in Health in Southern Africa (EQUINET). It presents a review of issues in the regional policy context that are of relevance to the retention of human resources for the health sector (HRH) within the region, based on a rapid appraisal in selected countries and at regional level. Details
The Aging Workforce: Implications for Health Care Organizations Jannetti Publications, Inc. Nursing Economics 2007 Hart KA [Excerpt from author] Executive Summary: In the health care arena, we have been cognizant of the aging RN workforce for many years. Planning for an aging workforce is complicated but necessary. Efforts to retain the older workforce encompass a number of specific areas, including ergonomics, health promotion, education and career enhancement, and policies and procedures. Clearly the time is ripe for all health care executives to address the issue of the aging health care workforce in their own organizations. Details
Nursing and Midwifery Labour Force 2004 - Australia Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2006 [Excerpt from publisher] This report provides an overview of the demographic and labour force characteristics of nurses and midwives in Australia in 2004, based on information collected in the 2004 Nursing and Midwifery Labour Force Census. Details
Planning Ward Nursing - Legacy or Design? A Follow -Up Report Audit Scotland 2007 [Excerpt from publisher website]NHS boards and the Scottish Executive Health Department (SEHD) have made progress in addressing the recommendations made in Audit Scotland's baseline report. This has laid the foundations for better ward nursing workload and workforce planning in the future. Details
From Boom to Bust? The UK Nursing Labour Market Review 2005/6 Royal College of Nursing 2006 Buchan J and Seccombe I [Excerpt from authors] This report is the annual review of the UK nursing labour market, commissioned by the Royal College of Nursing. Twelve months ago, our report for 2004/5 concluded that the nursing labour market was entering a period of uncertainty, with signs of redundancies and recruitment freezes emerging in some parts of the NHS, particularly in England. We highlighted the concern that short term and unplanned responses to financial difficulties had the potential to undermine workforce planning and store up problems for future years. These concerns have become much more pronounced in recent months. Details
Payment of Lunch Allowance: A Case Study of the Uganda Health Service Joint Learning Initiative 2004 Kanyesigye EK and Ssendyona GM [Excerpt from authors] Overall goal: Undertake a case study of an intervention (the lunch allowance scheme) instituted in Uganda to improve retention and motivation of health workers, and draw lessons form it. Details
Scaling up Health and Education Workers: Increasing the Performance and Productivity of an Existing Stock of Health Workers - Literature Review UK Department for International Development, Health Systems Resource Centre 2005 Buchan J [Excerpt from author] The review discusses definitions of productivity, indicators of productivity and performance, and then identifies five main sub themes where there may be options in achieving increased productivity and performance of the existing stock of health workers:1. Being There: Addressing staff absence and leave entitlements 2. In the Right Place: Issues of geographical location 3. At the Right Time: Matching staffing with workload 4. Doing the Right Thing: Being more responsive to community/ client needs; Making best use of available skills and competencies 5. Doing Things Differently / Doing Different Things: Improved training, management, enhanced roles etc Details