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Designing Incentives for Rural Health Care Providers in Developing Countries The World Bank 2001 Hammer J and Jack W [Excerpt from authors]In many developing country settings, and particularly in rural areas, the implementation of anything more than very rudimentary contracts for medical care providers, including public employees, is virtually impossible. In this paper we examine the kinds of policy levers that governments might conceivably have available to induce physicians to serve in rural areas. Using simple models of screening and spatial competition we investigate how the government can sort between physicians with low and high opportunity costs of relocation, and how the quality of existing providers (e.g., traditional healers) might affect the government's training policies. Details
Australia's Health Workforce: Productivity Commission Research Report Australian Government Productivity Commission 2005 [Excerpt from publisher] This research study, commissioned by CoAG, reviews a range of workforce issues. These include: factors affecting the future supply of, and demand for, health workers; the efficiency and effectiveness with which the available workforce is deployed; and what reforms to health workforce arrangements might be undertaken to improve access across the community to quality and safe health care. Details
Career Planning and Development - It's Your Career: Take Charge International Council of Nurses 2001 Donner GJ and Wheeler MM [Excerpt from authors] It's Your Career: Take Charge, is directed towards individual nurses to help them take charge and be in control of their careers within the ever-changing world of health care. This is a training package that provides nurses with: - An overview of what career planning and development is and why it is important. - A five-phase career planning and development model and activities to guide career development. - A trainer guide for those who want to conduct an It's Your Career: Take Charge workshop and offer career coaching. These guidelines highlight the key dimensions of career planning and development and offer guidance to those who wish to evaluate the present and shape their future. Details
Career Planning and Development - Trainer's Manual International Council of Nurses 2001 [Excerpt from publisher]This kit provides a manual for career coaches to help them conduct an It's Your Career: Take Charge workshop and/or offer career coaching to individual nurses. It also offers ready to use teaching materials, including activity planning and worksheets, a power point presentation on floppy disk and the ICN Career Planning guidelines. Additional references and networking options for career coaches are also provided. Details
Framework Guidelines for Addressing Workplace Violence in the Health Sector International Labour Office; International Council of Nurses;World Health Organisation; Public Services International 2002 [Excerpt from publishers] The objective of these Framework Guidelines is to provide general guidance in addressing workplace violence in the health sector. Far from being in any way prescriptive, the Guidelines should be considered a basic reference tool for stimulating the autonomous development of similar instruments specifically targeted at and adapted to different cultures, situations and needs. The Guidelines cover the following key areas of action:prevention of workplace violencedealing with workplace violencemanagement and mitigation of the impact of workplace violencecare and support of workers affected by workplace violencesustainability of initiatives undertakenAlso available in Russian at: http://www.icn.ch/WViolenceRussian.pdf Details
An Action Plan to Prevent Brain Drain: Building Equitable Health Systems in Africa Physicians for Human Rights 2004 Friedman EA [Excerpt from foreward] This paper by Physicians for Human Rights addresses the dual crises of violation of the human right to survival worsening in the face of severe shortages of human resources to meet our ethical obligations. This paper is exhaustively researched, adopts a comprehensive approach, and its release is very timely. As the report underscores, now is the time to act, for further delays will exact a huge human cost in millions of preventable deaths. The report's analysis penetrates to the root causes of the problem and it offers a set of strategies that must be embraced to address the crises. Effective solutions are available, not surprisingly. But these depend upon respect for basic human rights and the mutual meeting of our obligations - adapted and adjusted to new contexts. Details
Building the Future: An Integrated Strategy for Nursing Human Resources in Canada The Nursing Sector Study Corporation 2006 Med-Emerg Inc. [Excerpt from author] This report marks the culmination of the Nursing Sector Study. The five year study consisted of two phases, and examined the nursing workforce for all three regulated nursing professions in Canada (Licensed Practical Nurses (LPN) Registered Nurses (RN), and Registered Psychiatric Nurses (RPN)). Phase I, which concluded in December 2004, examined the state of nursing human resources in Canada. A series of 15 technical research reports were completed which covered areas such as nursing mobility, the international labour market, nursing education in Canada, and many others. Details
59th World Health Assembly Resolution WHA 59.27 Strengthening Nursing and Midwifery World Health Organization 2006 In May 2006, the Fifty-Ninth World Health Assembly adopted a resolution to strengthen nursing and midwifery. The resolution calls on member states to confirm their commitment to strengthen nursing and midwifery and lists a number of recommendations. Details
Enhancement of Patient Safety Through Formal Nurse-Patient Ratios: A Discussion Paper Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions 2005 Tomblin Murphy G [Excerpt from author] Nurses from across Canada are asking their leadership and bargaining agents to examine the feasibility of implementing formal Nurse-Patient Ratios as a strategy to address the ongoing problems of heavy workloads, workplace injuries, turnover, and burnout among the nurses. Moreover, mandatory Nurse-Patient Ratios are being viewed as an approach to promote patient safety by ensuring adequate nurse staffing levels. Based on the experience of other jurisdictions that have enacted legislation to mandate that health organizations adopt formal nurse-patient ratios, nurses in Canada are interested in knowing if a similar approach would be applicable in the Canadian context. In the fall of 2004 the National Executive Board of the Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions (CFNU), in partnership with the Office of Nursing Policy, Health Canada initiated a discussion which resulted in a project to determine if formal, mandated, Nurse-Patient Ratios would enhance patient safety while at the same time respect professional nursing judgement. The Report consists of a literature review of published and unpublished reports from government, the academic community and professional organizations from Canada and abroad. This Report examines the various definitions and dimensions (pros and cons) of Nurse-Patient Ratios as a staffing policy and reviews the experiences of other jurisdictions, in particular California in the United States and the State of Victoria in Australia. Details
The ALIVE program: developing a web-based professional development program for nursing leaders in teh home healthcare sector Longwoods 2010 Lankshear S, Huckstep S, Lefebre N, Leiterman J & Simon D "The ALIVE (Actively Leading In Virtual Environments) web-based program was developed to meet the needs of leaders working in virtual environments such as the home healthcare sector. The program, developed through a partnership of three home healthcare agencies, used nursing leaders as content experts to guide program development and as participants in the pilot. Evaluation findings include the identification of key competencies for nursing leaders in the home healthcare sector, development of program learning objectives and participant feedback regarding program content and delivery." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Using common work environment metrics to improve occupational health and safety in healthcare and community service organisations Longwoods 2010 MacDonald Mary-Lou & Slaunwhite Jason M "This commentary reviews the recommendations presented in the lead paper from the perspective of a safety association for healthcare and community services. We highlight the challenges of collecting employee safety-related data for comparative purposes. Preliminary research findings from AWARE-NS baseline assessments are presented to emphasize the situation in the province of Nova Scotia. An established provincial data management system that tracks occupational health and safety events and outcomes is reviewed to note its value to the healthcare system. Although the need to have a consistent framework for the healthcare sector is paramount, we argue that worker safety-related indicators are often overlooked or embedded within patient safety indicators. A call for more consistent employee safety-specific indictors is made." (excerpt from article) Details
Non-financial incentives for voluntary community health workers: A qualitative study JSI Research & Training Institute, Inc. 2009 Amare, Yared "This study utilizes in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to explore the potential efficacy of NFIs proposed by the project. The results of the study describe the factors motivating the vCHWs and concur with the NFIs proposed by the project. The study also proposes other NFI mechanisms for consideration and makes programmatic recommendations." Details
Health worker effectiveness and retention in rural Cambodia Rural and Remote Health 2010 Chhea C, Warren N & Manderson L "In this article the strategies of and barriers met by health workers who remain in rural areas and deliver public health services are elucidated. Ethnographic research conducted in 2008 with health providers involved in treating tuberculosis patients in Kampong Speu Province, Cambodia is drawn on." Details
The Nature of Nursing Quality of Work Life: An Integrative Review of Literature SAGE journals online 2010 Vagharseyyedin SA, Vanaki Z, & Mohammadi E "Thus, the current study was aimed to identify the predictors of the nurses' QWL and determine the definitions of QWL for nurses. The authors used an integrative review of the literature and identified six themes as the major predictors of the nurses' QWL: leadership and management style/decision-making latitude, shift working, salary and fringe benefits, relationship with colleagues, demographic characteristics, and workload/job strain." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Decisional Involvement: Staff Nurse and Nurse Manager Perceptions SAGE journals online 2010 Sherb CA, Specht JKP, Loes JL & Reed D "Enhancing involvement in organizational decisions is one strategy to improve the work environment of registered nurses and to increase their recruitment and retention. Little is known about the type of decision making and the level of involvement nurses desire. This was a descriptive study exploring staff nurse and nurse manager ratings of actual and preferred decisional involvement and differences between staff nurses and nurse managers." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Health workforce responses to global health initiatives funding: a comparison of Malawi and Zambia Human Resources for Health 2010 Brugha R, Kadzandira J, Simbaya J, Dicker P, Mwapasa V, & Walsh A "Shortages of health workers are obstacles to utilising global health initiative (GHI) funds effectively in Africa. This paper reports and analyses two countries' health workforce responses during a period of large increases in GHI funds." (excerpt from abstract) Details
High Impact Action for Nursing and Midwifery The Essential Collection Institute for Innovation and Improvement, NHS 2010 "The Essential Collection has been specifically designed to provide a range of material which we hope will help you to adopt and implement some of these improvements into your own local context. There is a separate section dedicated to each of the eight High Impact Actions. Please Note: Copies are free to order or download for NHS England organisations This product is available to purchase by non NHS England organisations at www.institute.nhs.uk/bookshop" (excerpt from website). Details
Report of the First Meeting of the Health Workforce Information Reference Group World Health Organization 2010 World Health Organization "A technical meeting on strengthening health workforce information systems was held on 10-12 March 2010 in Montreux, Switzerland. The meeting was jointly convened by the World Health Organization's Department of Human Resources for Health, the Global Health Workforce Alliance and the Health Metrics Network, who have called for the establishment of a Health Workforce Information Reference Group (HIRG). The aim of this first meeting of HIRG members and stakeholders was to initiate discussion on how to promote a coordinated, harmonized and standardized approach to strengthening country health workforce information and monitoring systems to support policy, planning and research." (excerpt from document) Details
A Summary of the December 2009 Forum on the Future of Nursing: Care in the Community Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2010 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation "The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative on the Future of Nursing, at the IOM, seeks to build a blueprint for the future of nursing as part of larger efforts to reform the health care system. The Initiative held three public forums to explore challenges and opportunities in nursing. The second forum, which took place December 3, 2009, examined care in the community, focusing on community health, public health, primary care, and long-term care. Presenters described examples of best practices in the community that shed light on what is needed to meet the country's changing health needs." (excerpt from website) Details
Nurses in advanced roles: A description and evaluation of experiences in 12 developed countries OECD 2010 Delamaire M-L & Lafortune G "This paper reviews the development of advanced practice nurses in 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Ireland, Japan, Poland, United Kingdom and United States), with a particular focus on their roles in primary care. It also reviews the evaluations of impacts on patient care and cost." Details
Registered Nurses' views about work and retirement SAGE journals online 2010 Valencia, D & Raingruber B "The purpose of this study was to identify what motivates experienced nurses to continue workings and to consider retirement" (excerpt from abstract) Details
The nursing human resource planning best practice toolkit: Creating a best practice resource for nursing managers Longwoods 2010 Vincent L & Beduz MA "The Nursing Human Resource Planning Best Practice Toolkit project supported the creation of a network of teaching and community hospitals to develop a best practice toolkit in nursing human resource planning targeted at first line nursing managers. ... This paper will provide an overview of the process used to develop the toolkit, a description of the toolkit contents and a reflection on the outcomes of the project." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Health policy thoughtleaders' view of the health workforce in an era of reform Elsevier 2010 Donelan K, Buerhaus P, DesRoches C & Burke S "The purpose of this research was to understand the visibility and salience of the health workforce in general, gain an understanding about the effectiveness of messages concerning the nursing workforce in particular, and to understand why nursing workforce issues do not appear to have gained more traction in national health care policymaking." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Using the practice environment scal of the nursing work index on Asian nurses Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Inc. 2009 Liou s & Cheng C "The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and the validity of the PES-NWI scale when applied to Asian nurses working in the United States." Details
Nurse staffing and quality of patient care Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2007 Kane RL, Shamliyan Tm, Mueller C, Duval S & Wilt TJ "Objectives: To assess how nurse to patient ratios and nurse work hours were associated with patient outcomes in acute care hospitals, factors that influence nurse staffing policies, and nurse staffing strategies that improved patient outcomes." (extract from abstract) Details
A comparison of the nursing practive envirobnment in mental health and medical-surgical settings. Sigma Theta Tau International Honour Society of Nursing 2010 Roche MA & Duffield CM "The work environment of mental health nurses is different from that of their colleagues working in general settings. Specific areas of the mental health environment, such as participation in the hospital, leadership, and the foundations of quality, may be enhanced to improve nurses' job satisfaction and, potentially, other nurse and patient outcomes." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Cultural Similarity, Cultural Competence and Nurse Workforce Diversity SAGE journals online 2010 McGinnis SL, Brush BL & Moore J "This study examined the use of national racial/ethnic categories in both patient and registered nurse (RN) populations and found them to be a poor indicator of cultural similarity. Rather, we found that cultural similarity between RN and patient populations needs to be established at the level of local labor markets and broadened to include other cultural parameters such as country of origin, primary language, and self-identified ancestry." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Development and evaluation of an RN/RPN Utilization Toolkit Longwoods 2010 Blastorah M, Alvarado K, Duhn L, Flint F, McGrath P & VanDeVelde-Coke S "Purpose: To develop and evaluate a toolkit for Registered Nurse/Registered Practical Nurse (RN/RPN) staff mix decision-making based on the College of Nurses of Ontario's practice standard for utilization of RNs and RPNs." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Forging partnerships to ex[pand nursing education capacity ajnonline.com 2010 Cleary BL, Hassmiller SB, Reinhard SC, Richardson EM, Veenema TG & Werner S "Nursing in America (CCNA) at AARP, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF), the U.S. Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration, and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Health Resources and Services Administration collaborated to address this growing crisis in nursing education. Within the past 18 months, these strategic partners cosponsored two national summits on nursing education capacity. These summits addressed the critical issues every state faces in trying to teach sufficient numbers of nurses the skills required in the 21st century. In this article, the first in a series of seven, we discuss the major messages that emerged from these two national summits." (excerpt from document) Details
Is transition of Internationall Educatioed Nurses a Regulatory Issue? SAGE journals online 2010 Xu Y, "Given the absence of global nurse regulation, the questionable credibility in many areas where national regulation does operate, and more important, the commercialization of nurse training in some countries to meet international demand, the quality and competence of IENs are likely to be varied in both quantitative and qualitative terms. This variability in quality and competence affect their ability and readiness to practice with direct implications for patient safety and quality of care. After description of a transition program as a proposed regulatory mechanism modeled after the National Council of State Boards of Nursing's Transition Initiatives, this article calls for comparative outcomes research on IENs and U.S. educated nurses to definitively determine if transition of IENs is a regulatory issue. " (excerpt from abstract) Details
A Summary of the October 2009 Forum on the Future of Nursing: Acute Care Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2010 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation "The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative on the Future of Nursing, at the IOM, seeks to transform nursing as part of larger efforts to reform the health care system. As part of this Initiative, three forums were held to explore challenges and opportunities in nursing. The first forum, on October 19, 2009, focused on quality and safety, technology, and interdisciplinary collaboration in acute care; and speakers offered new strategies to allow nurses to provide higher-quality care. The IOM will use the perspectives and ideas summarized in this document to inform a final report on the future of nursing, expected to release in fall 2010." (excerpt from website) Details
Gone south: why canadian nurses migrate to the United States Longwoods 2009 McGillis-Hall L, Pink GH, Jones C, Leatt P, Gates M, Pink L, Peterson J, & Seto L "The movement of Canadian nurses to the United States increased over the past decade and is an ongoing concern of health policy analysts. This study examines why Canadian nurses emigrate to the United States and whether there is interest in returning to work in Canada. A survey of Canadian-educated nurses in North Carolina showed that lack of full-time work opportunities played a key role in emigration. Focus groups of respondents revealed deep dissatisfaction with many aspects of nursing practice in Canada, particularly undervaluing of the profession. There is an urgent need for healthcare policy makers to explore what should be done to reduce the loss of this critical human resource." (abstract) Details
Implications of the California Nurse Staffing Mandate for Other States John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2010 Aiken LH, Sloan DM, Cimiotti JP, Clarke SP,Flynn L, Seago JA, Spetz J & Smith HL "In 2004, California became the first state to mandate minimum nurse staffing levels for various nursing units, specifying how many patients each nurse can care for at any one time. As other states look to enact nurse staffing legislation or regulations, California's example provides some insight. Researchers compared the outcomes for nurses and quality of care in California and two states without legislation-Pennsylvania and New Jersey. They surveyed 22,336 nurses in all three states and examined patient outcomes, including 30-day inpatient mortality and failure to rescue across hospitals according to whether the nurses cared for fewer or more patients each." Details
Healthcare Restructuring: The Impact of Job Change Longwoods 2010 Bauman A, Giovannetti P, O'Brien-Pallas C, Mallette C, Deber R, Blythe J, Hibberd J & DiCenso A "Restructuring, particularly redeployment and job change, had a dramatic impact on the working conditions and practices of nursing personnel. This study was conducted to determine whether nurses (RNs and RPNs) who experienced job change perceived their work-lives differently than those who did not undergo job change and, whether nurses who experienced different types of job change (new role, new unit, or new hospital) varied in their perceptions." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Costing the scaling-up of human resources for health: Lessons from Mozambique and Guinea Bissau Human Resources for Health 2010 Tyrrell AK, Russo G, Dussault G & Ferrinho P "In the context of the current human resources for health (HRH) crisis, the need for comprehensive Human Resources Development Plans (HRDP) is acute, especially in resource-scarce sub-Saharan African countries. However, the financial implications of such plans rarely receive due consideration, despite the availability of much advice and examples in the literature on how to conduct HRDP costing. Global initiatives have also been launched recently to standardise costing methodologies and respective tools." (exceprt from abstract) Details
NHS Health and Well-being: Final Report Department of Health 2009 Boorman, S "This report, and our earlier Interim Report, sets out a major change agenda for the NHS, designed to put staff health and wellbeing at the heart of its work. We believe that this is justified by the importance of this issue, both for staff themselves and for the delivery of high-quality patient care." (excerpt from report) Details
Internationally Educated Workers Jeopardy: Answers and Questions Longwoods 2010 Deber R Commentary: "Selecting policies for integrating internationally educated healthcare professionals (IEHPs) into the healthcare workforce depends on how the underlying policy questions are defined and how the resulting trade-offs are managed" (excerpt from article). Details
The BC Educator Pathway Collaborative Framework: Creating the Foundation for Nursing Education Capacity Longwoods 201 Semeniuk P, Mildon B, Purkis ME, Thorne S and Wejr P "This paper describes the conceptual structure and organizational framework of the Educator Pathway Project (EPP)...In this paper, we describe the overall program design, explain the collaborative partnership mechanisms through which we have been implementing the project and articulate a range of processes through which we are working together to enact significant system-level adjustments aimed at a genuine practice-education continuum." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Transformational Leadership to Promote Cross-Generational Retention Longwoods 2010 Lobo, V "This paper describes some of the challenges that managers encounter in their dealings with the contemporary multigenerational workforce - including the baby boomers, generation X and generation Y (the "millennials"). A review of research findings suggests the insufficiency of a single leadership approach to nurse management compared to more tailored generational strategies. Application of the transformational leadership model provides the background and tenets from which solutions are proposed for multigenerational management." (excerpt from abstract) Details
International Nurse Migration to Canada: Are We Missing the Bigger Picture? Longwoods 2010 Kolawole, B Commentary piece highkighting "'brain wastage' resulting from the inability of internaitonally educatioed nurses (IENs) to integrate into the Canadian halthcare system" Details
Do I want to be a nurse? What influences students to undertake a BSc in nursing programme: a preliminary Study SAGE journals online 2010 Dunnion ME, Dunnion G & McBride M "This preliminary study aimed to examine key aspects of the factors influencing students to undertake a career in nursing and to also examine attitudes that affected their decision to apply to study for a degree in nursing." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Co-workers' support and job performance among nurses in Jordanian Hospitals SAGE journals online 2010 Amarneh BH, Al-Rub RFA & Al-Rub NFA "The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of social support from co-workers on job performance among Jordanian hospital nurses. A correlational descriptive survey was used to investigate this relationship among a convenience sample of 365 Jordanian hospital nurses. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, which included the Schwirian Six Dimension Scale of Nursing Performance, the McCain and Marklin Social Integration Scale, and the demographic form. Perceived social support from co-workers enhanced the level of reported job performance (r = 0.40; p < 0.001). The analysis also showed that demographic variables and co-workers support explained 20% of the variation in job performance. Results indicated the positive effect of co-workers support on job performance." Details
Violence toward nurses, the work environment, and patient outcomes Sigma Theta Tau International Honour Society of Nursing 2010 Roche M, Diers D, Duffield C & Catling-Paull C "PURPOSE: To relate nurses' self-rated perceptions of violence (emotional abuse, threat, or actual violence) on medical-surgical units to the nursing working environment and to patient outcomes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional collection of data by surveys and primary data collection for 1-week periods on 94 nursing wards in 21 hospitals in two states of Australia." (extract from abstract) Details
Workplace Bullying in Health Care Affects the Meaning of Work SAGE journals online 2010 MacIntosh J, Wuest J, Gray MM & Cronkhite M "Our purpose in this grounded theory study was to explore the impact of workplace bullying (WPB) on women working in health care. We analyzed interviews with 21 women, professionals and nonprofessionals. The women experienced a change in their meaning of work (MOW) when they had experienced WPB, and they addressed this change through a process we called the shifting meaning of work." (excerpt from abstract). Details
Improving Health Service devlivery in Developing Countries: from Evidence to Action The World Bank 2009 Peters DH, El-Saharty S, Siadat B, Janovsky K & Vujicic M (eds) This book "demonstrates how a better understanding of implementation processes-the "how to"-is a crucial complement to the evidence addressing which health intervention should be selected. By better recognizing how context matters-how enabling and inhibiting factors influence even the most standardized or well-intentioned health strategy-the book points a way for managers and decision makers to deal with the complexities they regularly face". (excerpt from document). Note: includes a review of strategies to improve health care provider performance. Details
Perceived stress among nursing and administration staff related to accreditation SAGE journals online 2010 Elkins G, Cook T, Dove J, Markova D, Marcus JD, Meyer J, Rabab MH & Perfect M. "The aim of this study was to examine the effects of perceived stress on nursing hospital management and administrative employees of a large health care organization before and after a review by the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations" (excerpt from abstract) Details
The impact of work environment on telephone advice nursing SAGE journals online 2010 Reinhardt AC "This research builds on fundings from a large health maintenane organization study by Valanis et al. in which questionnaires an call desscriptions were used to correlate TAN nurse and caller/patient perceptions of calls at three regional sites. The survey tools were used to identify nurse perceptions of their work enviroments (WEs) as well as caller percentions fo using the advice service" (excerpt from abstract) Details
Meeting human resources for halth staffing goals by 2018: a quantitive analysis of policy options in Zambia Human Resources for Health 2010 Tjoa A, Kapihya M, Libetwa M, Schroder K, Scott C, Lee J and McCarthy E "We developed a model to forecast the size of the public sector health workforce in Zambia over the next ten years to identify a combination of interventions that would expand the workforce to meet staffing targets. The key forecasting variables are training enrolment, graduation rates, public sector entry rates for graduates, and attrition of workforce staff. We model, using Excel (Office, Microsoft; 2007), the effects of changes in these variables on the projected number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses and midwives in the public sector workforce in 2018." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Wanted: 2.4 million nurses, and that's just India World Health Organization 2010 Senior K "In most countries of the world there is a shortage of nurses but nowhere is it so acute as in the developing world. With International Nursing Day on 12 May 2010, Kathryn Senior investigates." (from website) Details
Who wants to work in a rural health post? The role of intrinsic motivation, rural background and faith-based institutions in Ethiopia and Rwanda World Health Organization 2010 Serneels P, Montalvo JG, Pettersson G, Lievens T, Butera JD & Kidanu A "This paper examines the extent to which health workers differ in their willingness to work in rural areas and the reasons for these differences, based on the data collected in Rwanda analysed individually and in combination with data from Ethiopia." (extract from paper) Details
Policy interventions that attract nurses to rural areas: a multicountry discrete choice experiment World Health Organization 2010 Blaauw D, Erasmus E, Pagaiya N, Tangcharoensathein V, Mullei S, Goodman C, English M & Largarde M "Objective: To evaluate the relative effectiveness of different policies in attracting nurses to rural areas in Kenya, South Africa and Thailand using data from a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Methods: A labelled DCE was designed to model the relative effectiveness of both financial and non-financial strategies designed to attract nurses to rural areas. Data were collected from over 300 graduating nursing students in each country. Mixed logit models were used for analysis and to predict the uptake of rural posts under different incentive combinations." (extract from abstract) Details
The challenges facing healthcare lecturers and professors to lead and promote a research-based culture for practice SAGE journals online 2010 Girot, EA "A qualitative study was undertaken to explore lecturers' and professors' views of their role in shaping attitudes to, and careers in, research for the nursing and allied health professional workforce." Details
A model linking clinical workforce skill mix planning to health and health care dynamics Human Resources for Health 2010 Masnick K & McDonnell G "In an attempt to devise a simpler computable tool to assist workforce planners in determining what might be an appropriate mix of health service skills, our discussion led us to consider the implications of skill mixing and workforce composition beyond the 'stock and flow' approach of much workforce planning activity." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Front line care: report by the Prime Minsiter's Commission on the Future of Nursing and Midwifery in England 2010 Prime Minister's Commission on the Future of Nursing and Midwifery in England 2010 Prime Minister's Commission on the Future of Nursing and Midwifery in England "The Prime Minister launched the Commission on the Future of Nursing and Midwifery in England on March 10, 2009. It covers England only, and considers midwifery and all branches of nursing, in all settings, services and sectors. The PM asked the Commission to do the following: ?Identify the competencies, skills and support that frontline nurses and midwives ?Identify any barriers that impede the pivotal role that ward sisters/charge nurses/community team leaders provide. ?Identify the potential and benefits for nurses and midwives, particularly in primary and community care, of leading and managing their own services. ?Engage with the professions, patients and the public to identify challenges and opportunities for nurses and midwives." (excerpt from Press release) Details
Generational differences in Registered Nurse Turnover SAGE journals online 2009 LeVasseur S, Wang C, Mathews B & Boland M "The aims of this study were to identify the reasons why registered nurses turnover by generational cohort (Veterans, Baby Boomers, and GenXMs) and to compare the length of time nurses were employed in their first five nursing positions by generational cohort. The findings suggest the three generational cohorts displayed similar reasons for leaving nursing positions with relocation, career advancement, and personal/family reasons reported most frequently." (extract from abstract) Details
Do wages matter?: A backward bend in the 2004 California RN Labor Supply SAGE journals online 2009 Tellez M, Spetz J, Seago JA, Harrington CM & Kitchener M "Using data from the 2004 California Board of Registered Nursing Survey, a two-stage least-square equation was estimated to examine the effect of wages on hours worked by female registered nurses. Wages were found to have a nonlinear effect on hours worked, with a backward bending supply curve." (exctract from abstract) Details
Health workplaces: a model for action World Health Organization 2010 World Health Organization "In line with the Global Plan of Action, this brochure provides a framework for the development of healthy workplace initiatives adaptable to diverse countries, workplaces and cultures." (excerpt from document) Details
The role of healthcare work environments in shaping a safety culture Healthcare Quarterly, Longwoods 2008 Lowe G S "Calls for a "safety culture" are increasingly common in discussions of how to improve patient safety. Healthcare quality experts point out that research on healthy workplaces identifies similar factors affecting both occupational health and safety and organizational performance (Sainfort et al. 2001). In Canada, healthcare leaders are being urged to act on the considerable evidence linking the working conditions of nurses, particularly staffing ratios and skill mix, to patient outcomes such as satisfaction, morbidity and mortality (Nicklin and Graves 2005). By integrating quality and safety within human resource strategies, greater improvements should be realized in the well-being of healthcare providers and the people they serve. At least in theory, this should contribute simultaneously to human resource and system performance goals." (excerpt from document) Details
Retention of Health Care Workers in Low-Resource Settings: Challenges and Responses The Capacity Project 2006 Yumkella F This technical brief explores the challenges and responses to the retention of health care workers in low-resource settings. [Excerpt from author] Conclusions:While the literature contains evidence-based examples of the magnitude of and causes for turnover, evidencebasedinformation on tested approaches to improve retention remains scarce.Notwithstanding this limitation, anecdotal findings suggest health care managers and organizations should examine three opportunity areas-financial compensation, improving the work environment and strategies to manage migration-in determining which approach or combination of approaches will deliver the greatest potential impact on maintaining a qualified workforce. Details
UHC Nursing Residency Program Reduces Turnover, Offers Case Study for Addresing Nationwide Nursing Retention Problems University HealthSystem Consortium 2010 University HealthSystem Consortium Press release from the University healthSystem Consortium utlining a 1-year program "which provides first-year nurses with tool to adjust to the high pressures of working as a hospital nurse". Details
From staff-mix to skill-mix and beyond: towards a systemic approach to health workforce management Human Resources for Health 2009 Dubois C-A & Singh D "Policy-makers and system managers have developed a range of methods and initiatives to optimise the available workforce and achieve the right number and mix of personnel needed to provide high-quality care. Our literature review found that such initiatives often focus more on staff types than on staff members' skills and the effective use of those skills. Our review describes evidence about the benefits and pitfalls of current approaches to human resources optimisation in health care." (excerpt from abstract). Details
Specialist nursing framework for New Zealand: A missing link in workforce planning Sage journals online 2009 Holloway K, Baker J & Lumby J "An identified area of concern for New Zealand reaching health policy targets in chronic conditions management and primary health care is an adequate specialist nurse workforce supply. This article explores the New Zealand context underpinning this concern and contends that effective workforce planning would be supported by the development of a single unified framework for specialist nursing practice in New Zealand." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Preparation of nursing students for change and innovation SAGE journals online 2010 Kalisch BJ "Using the Organizational Engineering Model, this study examines the informational processing styles of students entering the nursing profession and in turn, measures the way they process information at the end of their education. The information processing style predicts the ability to innovate, take risks, and change." (excerpt from abstract) Details
A sustainable future: The RCN vision of community nursing in Scotland Royal College of Nursing Scotland 2009 Royal College of Nursing Scotland "this document outlines RCN Scotland's vision for a sustainable future for all nurses working in the community in Scotland. We set out six key 'asks' which need to be addressed for this vision to be realised." (excerpt from document) Details
Sending money home: a mixed-methods study of remittances by migrant nurses in Ireland Human Resources for Health 2009 Humphries N, Brigha R & McGee H "This paper presents data on the remittances sent by migrant nurses to their families "back home". It gives voice to the experiences of migrant nurses and illustrates the financial obligations they maintain while working overseas. Although the international economic recession has decreased global remittance flows, they remain resilient. Drawing on the experiences of migrant nurses in Ireland, this paper indicates how and why migrants strive to maintain remittance flows, even in an economic downturn." (excerpt from abstract). Details
Nursing leadership from bedside to boardroom: Opinion leaders' perceptions (Top line report) Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2010 gallup This doument presents top-level findings of a survey conducted on behalf of the Robert James Wood Foundation (USA) by Gallup in 2009. The survey is based on 1,504 telephone interviews with opinion leaders throughout USA,aiming to examine views of nursing and nursing leadership Details
Taking forward action on human resources for health in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique and Zambia: Synthesis and measures of success The Capacity Project & integrare 2010 Cambell J & Settle D This document maps the findings of four country case studies agains the framework of the Agenda for Global Action, and presens key findings and emerging priorities. Details
Influence of stress resiliency on RN job satisfaction and intent to stay SAGE journals online 2010 Larabee JH, Wu Y, Persily CA, Simoni PS, Johnston PA, Marcischak TL, Mott CL & Gladden SD "This study has evaluated the influence of stress resiliency on job stress, psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, and intent to stay using causal modeling. Participants are 464 RNs employed in five acute care hospitals in West Virginia. The final model has provided a very good fit to the data. Stress resiliency is a predictor of psychological empowerment, situational stress, and job satisfaction. This study provides the first evidence of the influence of stress resiliency on job stress, psychological empowerment, job satisfaction, and intent to stay in a sample of RNs." (excerprt from abstract) Details
"Hit The Ground Running": perspectives of new nurses and nurse managers on role transition and integration of new graduates Longwoods 2010 Chernomas WM, Care WD, MacKenzie JL, Guse L & Currie J "As part of a larger study that examined the effectiveness of a new strategy on new nurse retention and workplace integration, we conducted focus groups with new nurses and nurse managers. This paper discusses the perspectives of new nurses on their role transition from graduates to practising professionals and the perspectives of nurse managers on the workplace integration of new nurses." (Excerpt from abstract) Details
Effects of a multifaceted minimal-lift environment for nursing staff: pilot results SAGE journals online 2010 Zadvinskis IM "The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a multifaceted minimal-lift environment on reported equipment use, musculoskeletal injury rates, and workers' compensation costs for patient-handling injuries. The pilot study consists of a mixed measures design, with both descriptive and quasi-experimental design elements. The intervention consists of engineering (minimal-lift equipment), administrative (nursing policy), and behavioral (peer coach program) controls." (Excerpt from abstract) Details
Strategies to advance 70% full-time nurse employment toolkit Nursing Health Services Research Unit 2009 Baumann A, Pitters M, Crea-Arsenio M "This toolkit was designed for nurse employers across theprovince of Ontario to use asa a resource in working toward the 70% full-time nurse commitment. It is a practical guide to assist Nurse Managers and Human Resource Staff in identifying staffing needs and creating organization-specific strategices to increase full-time employment for nurses." (Excerpt from authors) Details
Winners and losers: Organizational impacts of a nurses pay agreement SAGE journals online 2009 North, N & Buchan, J "This article considers the impacts on organizations of a new national employment agreement for nurses in New Zealand. In the 1980s, local employer bargaining replaced national awards. As nurses' employment conditions deteriorated, in 2004 that trend was reversed with a new national agreement between the nurses' union and the public sector health boards. Qualitative information was collected and analyzed from two employers covered by the agreement and from five nongovernment organizations not party to the agreement." (excerpt from abstract) Details
An applied simulation model for estimating the supply of and requirements for registered nurses based on population health needs SAGE journals online 2009 Murphy GT, MacKenzie A, Alder R, Birch S, Kephart G & O'Brien-Palls L "Traditional planning methods for the professionals required to provide these services have given little consideration to changes in the needs of the populations they serve or to changes in the amount/types of services offered and the way they are delivered. In the absence of dynamic planning models that simulate alternative policies and test policy mixes for their relative effectiveness, planners have tended to rely on projecting prevailing or arbitrarily determined target provider-population ratios. A simulation model has been developed that addresses each of these shortcomings by simultaneously estimating the supply of and requirements for registered nurses based on the identification and interaction of the determinants. The model's use is illustrated using data for Nova Scotia, Canada." (excerpt rom Abstract) Details
Developing an orientation toolkit for new public health nurse hires for Ontario's changing landscape of public health practice Longwoods 2010 Simpson J, Kniahhnicki S & Quigley-Hobbs K "In 2008/2009, the Orientation: Transition to Public Health Nursing Toolkit was developed to enhance the integration of new hires into public health nursing practice in Ontario and to increase retention of these hires. ... " (excerpt from Abstract) Details
A summary of the February 2010 Forum on the Future of Nursing: Education National Academies Press 2010 Committee on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative on the Future of Nursing at the Institute of Medicine "Each discussion...focussed on three broad, overlapping subjects: what to teach, how to teach, and where to teach." (excerpt from document) Details
Increasing access to health workers in remote and rural areas through improved retention: Global Policy Recommendations World Health Organization 2010 World Health Organization "A shortage of qualified health workers in remote and rural areas impedes access to health-care services for a significant percentage of the population, slows progress towards attaining the Millennium Development Goals and challenges the aspirations of achieving health for all. The World Health Organization (WHO) has produced these recommendations in response to requests from global leaders, civil society and Member States." (excerpt from abstract( Details
Evaluation of Malawi's Emergency Human Resources Program Department for International Development 2010 Management Sciences for Health & Management Solutions Consulting (MSC) Limited In August 2009, the Government of Malawi, with technical and financial assistance from DFID, contracted Management Sciences for Health and Management Solutions Consulting (MSH/MSC) to undertake an independent evaluation of the Six-year Emergency Human Resource Programme (EHRP). ... The core objective of this evaluation was to assist the Government of Malawi and its partner, the Christian Health Association of Malawi (CHAM) assess the implementation progress of the EHRP and take stock of its achievements against planned targets. The evaluation was also aimed at assessing the impact of the EHRP on health service utilization and the costs of the programme." (excerpt from report) Details
Respect as experienced by registered nurses SAGE journals online 2010 Antoniazzi CD "The aims of this study were to ascertain how registered nurses convey and experience respect in their day-to-day work environment with other registered nurses. ... Findings revealed that communication was a key factor in conveying and experiencing respect, including what is communicated, how it is communicated, and what is not communicated." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Planning nurse staffing with a patient acuity system HealthLeaders Media 2010 Hendren R "Saint Joseph Hospital in Chicago implemented a software program-Res-Q from Concerro-to track and predict nurse staffing needs based on acuity." (excerpt from article) Details
An institutional ethnography of Nurses' stress SAGE journals online 2010 McGibbon E, Peter E & Gallop R "The purpose of this study was to reformulate the nature of stress in nursing, with attention to important contextual aspects of nurses' practice. Smith's sociological frame of institutional ethnography was used to explicate the social organization of nurses' stress. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews, participant observation, and focus groups with pediatric intensive care nurses." (excerpt from abstract) Details
Models and tools for health workforce planning and projections World Health Organization 2010 World Health Organization "The objective of this paper is to take stock of the available methods and tools for health workforce planning and projections, and to describe the processes and resources needed to undertake such an exercise." (excerpt from introduction) Details
A Short Film About How Nurses Save Lives- eVD Canadian Health Services Research Foundation 0 [Excerpt from publisher]This new and innovative documentary features a patient, an oncology nurse, a nurse manager, and a leading researcher in the field of nurse staffing expressing the importance of nurses' contributions to health and healthcare and how higher levels of nurse staffing lead to improved patient outcomes. Windows Media player required. Details
Nursing's Focal Points Sigma Theta Tau International 0 "Nursing's Focal Points is a monthly educational e-newsletter with articles adapted from recent issues of honor society journals. If you wish to be added to the mailing list for Nursing's Focal Points, please e-mail global@stti.iupui.edu. Please note that select articles are available in English and Portuguese." Details
Effects of leadership and span of control on nurses' job satisfaction and patient satisfaction Longwoods 2009 McCutcheon AS, Doran D, Evans M, McGillis Hall L & Pringle D "This study examined the relationships between leadership style, span of control, nurses' job satisfaction and pateint sarisfaction, as well as teh moderating effect of span of control on the relationship between leadership style and the two outcomes." (excerpt from abstract) Details
From staff-mix to skill-mix and beyond: towards a systematic approach to health workforce management Human Resources for Health 2009 Dubois C-A & Singh D "Policy-makers and system managers have developed a range of methods and initiatives to optimise the available workforce and achieve the right number and mix of personnel needed to provide high-quality care. Our literature review found that such initiatives often focus more on staff types than on staff members' skills and the effective use of those skills. Our review describes evidence about the benefits and pitfalls of current approaches to human resources optimisation in health care. We conclude that in order to use human resources most effectively, health care organisations must consider a more systemic approach - one that accounts for factors beyond narrowly defined human resources management practices and includes organisational and institutional conditions." (Excerpt from abstract) Details
Health worker retention and performance initiatives:Making better strategic choices The Capacity Project 2009 McCaffery JA, Joyce S & Massie B "In this technical brief, we propose a shared approach that is based in part on Herzberg's seminal work on motivation as well as on our own experience and that of others in the international health field. Our intent is to help clarify and align our language and thinking about improving health care in resource constrained countries." (excerpt from document) Details
Critical Care Nurses' Work Environments 2008: A Follow-Up Report American Association of Critical Care Nurses 2009 Ulrich B, Lavandero R, Hart KA, Woods D, Leggett J, Friedman D, D'Aurizio P & Edwards SJ "In 2006, Gannett Healthcare Group (which includes Nursing Spectrum, NurseWeek, and www.Nurse.com), and Bernard Hodes Group (a leader in integrated talent solutions and a division of Omnicom) joined AACN to conduct a national survey of critical care nurses. The survey was designed to determine the baseline status of critical care work environments. The results of that survey were reported previously in Critical Care Nurse.8,9 In 2008, these 3 organizations conducted a follow-up survey. This article reports the major results of the 2008 survey with comparisons to the 2006 baseline results." (excerpt from article) Details
"I won't be staying here for long": a qualitative study on the retention of migrant nurses in Ireland Human Resources for Health 2009 Humphries N, Brugha R & McGee H "This paper draws on qualitative, in-depth interviews undertaken with 21 migrant nurses in Ireland, focusing specifically on their future migration intentions." (excerpt from abstract) Details
A Review and Evaluation of Workplace Violence Prevention Programs in the Health Sector Nursing Health Services Research Unit 2008 Wang S, Hayes, L & O'Brien Pallas, L "This study involved a comprehensive literature review of workplace violence prevention programs utilized in health care and in nursing practice in particular, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of these prevention programs on their impact on the incidence ofviolence. The objectives of the study wereto; 1) analyze and sythesize the research literature which proposes or evaluates the impact of workplace violence prevention programs, and 2) develop recommendations for a comprehensive approach towards violence reduction. The report's findings will provide the framework for program initiative recommendations to be considered by policy makers. Additionally, areas in need of further study will be suggested on the basis of gaps revealed in the literature review." (exerpt from Executive Summary) Details
Managing the Multi-Generational Workforce: Managerial and Policy Implications International Centre for Human Resources in Nursing 2009 Manion, J "The nursing workforce in many countries today is more age diverse than ever before in history. In developed countries there are as many as four distinct generational age cohorts in active employment. This age diversity results in a tremenedous challenge for the nurse manager as it can often lead to increased friction and conflict in the workplace.Additionally, each generation has a distinct set of characteristics, values, beliefs and preferences. Understanding these diffeerences and blending them in the workplace challenges even the most experienced and capable leader. This paper identifies the characteristics of each generation and explores several implications for the effective management of nursing services." (excerpt from document) Details
Scaling Up the stock of health workers: A review International Centre for Human Resources in Nursing 2009 Dussault G, Fronteira I, Prytherch H, Dal Poz, M, Ngoma D, Lunguzi J & Wyss K "This paper synthesises some of the published and grey literature on the process of scaling up the health workforce - also know as juman resources for health (HRH) - with particular focus on increasing the number of trained providers of health services. It concentrates on low- and middle-income countries, although some literature on richer countries is included." (excerpt from executive Summary) Details
Effective scale-up: avoiding the same old traps Human Resources for Health 2009 Gaye P & Nelson D "Despite progress in developing more effective training methodologies, training initiatives for health workers continue to experience common pitfalls that have beset the overall success and cost-effectiveness of these programs for decades. These include lack of country-level coordination of health training, inequitable access to training, interrupted services, and failure to reinforce skills and knowledge training by addressing other performance factors. These pitfalls are now seen as aggravating the current crisis in human resources for health and impeding the effective scale-up of training and the potential impact of promising strategies such as task shifting to address health worker shortages. Drawing on IntraHealth International's lessons learned in designing reproductive health and HIV/AIDS training and performance improvement programmes, this commentary discusses promising practices for strengthening human resources for health through more efficient and effective training and learning programmes that avoid the same old traps." (from abstract) Details
Limiting nurse overtime, and promoting other good conditions, influences patient safety Journal of Nursing Care Quality, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. 2008 Sharp B and Clancy C (none available) Details
NHS stress driving up nurse sick leave levels Nursing times.net, Emap Ltd 2009 Clews G "NHS staff are almost four times as likely to be absent from work with stress as people with other occupations, and nurses are the most stressed of all, Nursing times can reveal" (excerpt from web report) Details
When staff create the organisational culture: A case study in the Spanish emergency system Sage Journals Online 2008 Pino, J, Gardey, G & Hagen, I "In this article, we try to explain how the break-down in the emergency services affects the work that the staff do. Drawing on evidence obtained from a six-month ethnographic study in two Spanish public hospitals, we conclude that in this overloaded context, official definitions of emergencies and formal classification protocols are completely useless. Exploring the staff's perceptions about the users and the service itself we try to re-create the process by which the diverse health care workers informally re-define symbols, concepts and behaviour patterns, creating a specific internal culture that helps them cope with the complexity of the service and the excessive demand". Details
Uncovering blind spots in education and practice leadership: Towards a collaborative response to the nurse shortage Nursing Leadership, Longwoods Publishing 2009 Regan S, Thorne S & Mildon B "In this paper, we deconstruct some of the current thinking regarding responsibility for the current problem by describing differences in the distinct cultures and contexts of the practice and education sectors, noting potential "blind spots" that interfere with our mutual understanding and encouraging a better-informed, shared responsibility to promote constructive engagement in preparing tomorrow's nursing workforce." (excerpt from abstract) Details