[Excerpt from author] Nurses from across Canada are asking their leadership and bargaining agents to examine the feasibility of implementing formal Nurse-Patient Ratios as a strategy to address the ongoing problems of heavy workloads, workplace injuries, turnover, and burnout among the nurses. Moreover, mandatory Nurse-Patient Ratios are being viewed as an approach to promote patient safety by ensuring adequate nurse staffing levels. Based on the experience of other jurisdictions that have enacted legislation to mandate that health organizations adopt formal nurse-patient ratios, nurses in Canada are interested in knowing if a similar approach would be applicable in the Canadian context. In the fall of 2004 the National Executive Board of the Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions (CFNU), in partnership with the Office of Nursing Policy, Health Canada initiated a discussion which resulted in a project to determine if formal, mandated, Nurse-Patient Ratios would enhance patient safety while at the same time respect professional nursing judgement. The Report consists of a literature review of published and unpublished reports from government, the academic community and professional organizations from Canada and abroad. This Report examines the various definitions and dimensions (pros and cons) of Nurse-Patient Ratios as a staffing policy and reviews the experiences of other jurisdictions, in particular California in the United States and the State of Victoria in Australia.