[Excerpt from Preface] The papers presented here cover the main dimensions of HRD in health: planning and managing the workforce, education and training, incentives and working conditions, managing the performance of personnel and policies needed to ensure that investments in human resources produce the benefits to which the investing populations are entitled. Authors write from diverse professional, regional and cultural perspectives, and yet there is a high degree of consistency in their diagnosis of problems and proposals for strategies to address them. They all agree on the multidimensionality of problems and on the need for solutions that take into account all dimensions. They also agree that if problems tend to be similar in nature, they take forms that are time- and context-determined. This set of papers raise questions and give insights into strategies that are relevant to developed and developing countries.